Neurons – our brain’s messengers

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What are neurons?

A neuron, also known as a nerve cell, is a cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through signals.

The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons. They are the basic units of the nervous system which are the parts of your body which control movements, senses, thoughts, and feelings. They carry impulses from one part of your body to another which is why they are much longer than other cells.

 Anatomy of a Neuron:

Neurons have three basic parts:

  • a cell body
  • an extensions called an axon
  • another extension called a dendrite.

How do neurons work?

The axon transmits messages from the cell while the dendrite receives messages for the cell.

Neurotransmitters: Neurons communicate with each other by sending chemicals, called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters are released into the space between the end of an axon and the tip of a dendrite from another neuron.

Synapse:  This space between the end of an axon and the tip of a dendrite is called a synapse. The neurotransmitters pass through the synapse to the next neuron so that the message is carried on.

Ready to learn more?

Here’s my 2-minute drill on Neurons!


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As a 7th grader, Divya has a million ideas running through her head at any single moment. She's a creative force, and is the official design guru for STEAMism.com, designing the infographics and digital art you see on the website. She loves reading, has been a blogger and prolific writer since Kindergarten and is an expert on Greek Mythology. She's also learning the art of video and audio design and editing. Checkout her STEAMism videos on YouTube!

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